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Risk drivers

Click on the boxes to find out more about Risk drivers:

climate change

Climate change

Climate change affects all of Europe. Global average temperatures are rising and Europe will have to face more frequent and severe droughts, floods, extreme weather, and wildfires.
Urbanisation profile


Urbanisation is a challenge in European societies. The high concentration of infrastructure, businesses and cultural heritage means that urban areas can both contribute to, and suffer from, threats of natural and human induced disasters.
environmental degradation

Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation, particularly damage to ecosystems and biodiversity loss (for instance due to changes in land and sea use, pollution and loss of organisms), increases the risk of disaster in the EU.
Security landscape

The changing security landscape

The changing security landscape in Europe is ever-evolving and increasingly complex, with new technologies, cyber space and social media adding new dimensions.
Technological development

Technological developments

Technological developments, including digital technologies, are changing the way we live. Though these changes bring immense benefits, they also present new threats to businesses, critical infrastructure, the wellbeing of citizens and wider security interests.